Many references discuss various aspects of using statistical techniques for relating porosity to seismic reflection attributes. The following lists 13 aspects of the analysis with the pertinent references.

**1. Theoretical aspects of 2D seismic complex trace analysis methods.**

- Barnes, A.E., "Theory of 2D complex seismic trace analysis," Geophysics, Vol. 61, 1996, pp. 264-72.
- Taner, M.T., Koehler, F., and Sheriff, R.E., "Complex seismic trace analysis," Geophysics, Vol. 44, 1979, pp. 1041-63.

**2. Aspects of 3D seismic data acquisition, interpretation and multi-attribute analysis techniques.**

- Nestvold, E.O., "The impact of 3D seismic data on exploration, field development and production," AAPG Studies in Geology, No. 42, SEG Geophysical Developments Series, No. 5, 1996, pp.1-5.
- Rankey, K.E., and Mitchell, J.C, "That's why it is called interpretation: Impact of horizon uncertainty on seismic attribute analysis," The Leading Edge, Vol. 22, No. 9, 2003, pp. 820-28.
- Russell, B., Hampson, D., Schuelke, J., and Quirein, J., "Multi-attribute Seismic Analysis," The Leading Edge, 16, 1997, pp. 1439-43.

**3. Empirical relationships between porosity and seismic attributes.**

- Bloch, S., "Empirical prediction of porosity and permeability in sandstones," AAPG Bulletin, Vol. 75, 1991, pp. 1145-60.
- Bloch, S. and Helmold, K.P., "Approaches to predicting reservoir quality in sandstones," AAPG Bulletin, Vol. 79, 1995, pp. 97-115.
- Chen, Q., and Sidney, S., "Seismic attribute technology for reservoir forecasting and monitoring," The Leading Edge, 16, 1997, pp. 445-52.
- Dvorkon, J., and Alkhater, S., "Pore fluid and porosity from seismic," First Break, Vol. 22, 2004, pp. 53-57.
- Gluyas, J., and Cade, A.C., "Prediction of porosity in compacted sands," AAPG Memoir 69, 1997, pp. 19-27.
- Tobin, R.C., "Porosity prediction in frontier basins: a systematic approach to estimating subsurface reservoir quality from outcrop samples," AAPG Memoir 69, 1997, pp. 1-18.

**4. Seismic data modeling studies for reservoir prediction.**

- Hart, B., and Chen, M.A., "Understanding seismic attributes through forward modeling," Leading Edge, Vol. 23, No. 9, 2004, pp. 834-41.
- Lecomite, I., Maao, F.A., and Bakke, R., "Efficient and flexible seismic modeling of reservoir: a hybrid approach," The Leading Edge, Vol. 23, No. 5, 2004, pp. 432-42.

**5. Geostatistical techniques to relate transit times from surface seismic reflection data to porosity measurements from wells and compare the results to those derived from linear regressions.**

- Doyen, P.M., "Porosity from seismic data: A geostatistical approach," Geophysics, Vol. 53, 1988, pp. 1263-75.
- Gorell, S.B., "Using geostatistics to aid in reservoir characterization," The Leading Edge, Vol. 14, September 1997, pp. 967-74.
- Hart, B.S., "Validating seismic attribute studies: Beyond statistics," The Leading Edge, Vol. 21, 2002, pp. 1016-21.
- Love, K.M., Strohmenger, C., Woronow, A., and Rockenbauch, K., "Predicting reservoir quality using linear regression models and neural networks," AAPG Memoir 69, 1997, pp. 47-60.

**6. Cokrigging methods to relate seismic velocities to porosity**

- Scerbo, F., and Mazzotti, A., "Geostatistical estimates of porosity from seismic data," Bollettino di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata, Vol. 33, No. 130-131, 1997, pp. 85-110.

**7. Experimental relationships that provide porosity models for describing the spatial distribution of porosity. These models also support the statistical models derived by earlier authors.**

- Marion, D., Nur, H. Yin, and Han, D., "Compressional velocity and porosity in sand-clay mixtures," Geophysics, Vol. 57, No. 4, 1992, pp. 554-63.

**8. Experimental relationships among velocity, porosity, and clay content.**

- Mavko, G., and Nolen-Hoeksema, R., "Estimation of seismic velocities at ultrasonic frequencies in partially saturated rocks," Geophysics, Vol. 59, No. 2, 1994, pp. 252-58.

**9. Petrophysical properties in relation to porosity and velocity variations.**

- Vernik, L., and Nur, A., "Petrophysical classification of siliciclastics for lithology and porosity prediction from seismic velocities," AAPG Bulletin, Vol. 76, No. 9, 1992, pp. 1295-1309.

**10. Reservoir quality prediction from integrated seismic–well data using various statistical and mathematical techniques.**

- Kupecz, J.A., Gluyas, J., and Bloch, S., "Reservoir quality prediction in Sandstones and Carbonates," AAPG Memoir 69, 1997, pp. 115-25.

**11. Reservoir characterization and prediction of reservoir properties with case studies.**

- Alexander, D.W., "Impact of 3D seismic data on reservoir characterization and development, Ghawar field, Saudi Arabia," AAPG Studies in Geology, No. 42, SEG Geophysical Developments Series, No. 5, 1996, pp. 205-10.
- Dorn, G.A., Tubman, K.M., Cooke, D., and Connor, R.O., "Geophysical reservoir characterization of Pickerill Field, North Sea, using 3D seismic and well data," AAPG Studies in Geology, No. 42, SEG Geophysical Developments Series, No. 5, 1996, pp. 107-21.
- Mackie, S.I., and Gumley, C.M., "The Dirkala South Oil Discovery: Focusing on cost-efficient 3D-seismic reservoir delineation, Cooper/Eromanga Basin, Central Australia," AAPG Studies in Geology, No. 42, SEG Geophysical Developments Series, No. 5, 1996, pp. 83-85.
- Raul, C.G., Arestad, J.F., Dagdelen, K., and Davis, T.L., "Geostatistical simulation of reservoir porosity distribution from 3D, 3C seismic reflection and core data in the lower Nisku formation at Joffre Field, Alberta," AAPG Memoir 69, 1997, pp. 115-25.
- Van de sande, J.M.M., "Prediction of reservoir parameters from 3D seismic data for the Zechstein 2 Carbonate play in the northeast Netherlands," AAPG Studies in Geology, No. 42, SEG Geophysical Developments Series, No. 5, 1996, pp. 197-99.
- Uffen, J.D., "Swan Hill Unit #1: Adding value with seismic data through reservoir delineation and characterization," AAPG Studies in Geology, No. 42, SEG Geophysical Developments Series, No. 5, 1996, pp. 179-87.
- Ssosna, R., and Bruner, K.R., "Depositional controls over porosity development in lithic sandstones of the Appalachian basin: Reducing exploration risk," AAPG Memoir 69, 1997, pp. 249-65.

**12. Amplitude-variation-with-offset (AVO) inversion algorithm application to seismic-angle stacks and accurate maps of sandstone reservoirs and also the prediction of the presence of hydrocarbons in a reservoir.**

- Jarvis, K., Folkers, A., and Mesdag, P., "Reservoir characterization of the Flag Sandstone, Barrow Sub-basin, using an integrated, multi-parameter seismic AVO inversion technique," Leading Edge, Vol. 23, No. 8, 2004, pp. 798-800.

**13. Seismic and well data integration for generating reservoir models, covering statistical analysis tools such as principal components analysis (PCA) clustering and multiple point simulation to recognize characteristic depositional facies patterns from seismic data and to connect the facies geometries.**

- Gilbert, R., Liu, Y., Abriel, W., and Preece, R., "Reservoir modeling: integrating various data at appropriate scales," Leading Edge, Vol. 23, No. 8, 2004, pp. 784-88.