BI-DIRECTIONAL TOOL INSPECTS 'DEADEND' CRUDE-LOADING LINE

In-line inspection of a subsea crude-oil pipeline not designed for pigging took place last summer in Singapore. In July, a 48-in., 5.2-km pipeline used to unload crude oil from tankers at Shell Eastern Petroleum (Pte) Ltd.'s Bukom refinery in Singapore was inspected by NKK's bidirectional, ultrasonic, in-line inspection tool. The pipeline incorporates a pipeline end manifold (PLEM) that permits connection to tankers via a flexible hose. Final analysis of the inspection results has been

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