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  1. CALCULATIONS ESTIMATE PROCESS STREAM DEPOSITIONS

    Magazine Articles

    Mon, 3 Jan 1994

    following reactions: NH4CL(S) = NH3(G) + HCL (G) (1) NH4HS(S) = NH3(G) + H2S ..... partial pressures of, respectively, NH3, HCl , and H2S in the vapor phase (see Nomenclature ..... even when the stream has a small amount of HCl , as long as the NH3 partial pressure is

  2. TECHNOLOGY New process removes inorganic chlorides from reformate

    Magazine Articles

    Mon, 20 May 1996

    reacts in the reforming environment to produce HCl and an alkyl organic compound. The HCl produced in the reformer reacts with ammonia ..... 4 Cl), which is insoluble in reformate. The HCl and NH 4 Cl are carried by the reactor effluent

  3. STIMULATING SHALES-CONCLUSION EXPERIENCE REVEALS BETTER BAKKEN STIMULATION TECHNIQUES

    Magazine Articles

    Mon, 29 Apr 1991

    initially stimulated with 5,000 gal of 20% HCl acid and 15,000 gal of emulsified 28% HCl acid. This job increased production from 12 bo ..... treatment. The upper shale is almost inert in HCl acid, and the fracture created during the acid

  4. Alternative methods clean up filter cake

    Magazine Articles

    Mon, 1 Feb 1999

    Specifically, alternatives to hydrochloric acid ( HCl ) treatments must be considered in regard to the damaging effect HCl can have through the generation of residues ..... study on conventional external breakers, HCl was compared to alpha amylase enzyme, sodium

  5. Technology advances boost horizontal openhole gravel packing

    Magazine Articles

    Mon, 8 Jul 2002

    magnitude slower than with hydrochloric acid ( HCl ). Also one can control removal times by ..... contact points, a common occurrence with HCl . In these cleanups, another significant ..... CAS but increase from 150 to 250 æm with HCl treatments. This adversely affects sand

  6. Mineralogy-based acid design restores sandstone productivity

    Magazine Articles

    Mon, 21 Jun 2004

    are known to be unstable in hydrochloric ( HCl ) acid, depending on their composition and the temperature. Pumping strong HCl into a sandstone formation above the stability ..... matrix permeability during pumping.4 Also HCl and acetic acids, by themselves, will

  7. Corrosion problems solved in CT nitrogen operations off Brazil

    Magazine Articles

    Mon, 15 Sep 2008

    hydrolysis, creating hydrochloric acid, HCl (H + + Cl - ), as shown in Equations 3 ..... the corrosion process because the formed HCl begins to attack the metal, as shown in ..... the string was pickled with 5 bbl of 5% HCl with the BHA still in place. We removed

  8. TECHNOLOGY Solvent removes downhole NORM-contaminated BaSO 4 scale

    Magazine Articles

    Mon, 22 Apr 1996

    1984, was a gelled acid wash and squeeze with 15% HCl and gelled 28% HCl . Subsequent treatments included a nitrogen squeeze ..... As predicted, the scale showed no solubility in 15% HCl and 12% HCl -3% HF. A pretreatment gamma ray spectroscopy

  9. In situ gels improve formation acidizing

    Magazine Articles

    Mon, 20 Jan 1997

    surface, leaving the interval free of damage. Typically, VCA for matrix acidizing contains 3-5% HCl . The HCl -only stages are typically 15-28% HCl . Fracture acidizing Fracture acidizing is only applied to carbonate reservoirs, such as limestones

  10. TECHNOLOGY Coiled tubing facilitates deep underbalanced workover

    Magazine Articles

    Mon, 31 Mar 1997

    use acid for dissolving the particles. An HCl acid package, 15% by volume, was selected ..... blended in an acid system consisting of 15% HCl , acetic anhydride, foaming agent, and ..... coiled tubing spotting 2,000 gal of 15% HCl acid across open hole. Displace coiled

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