Study verifies safe operating limits for batched line using DRAs

02/26/2001
Pak-Arab Refinery Ltd. (PARCO), Karachi, Pakistan, achieved a 33% increase in capacity on a 16-in. OD multiproducts pipeline by using drag-reducing agents (DRAs) rather than more conventional methods.The approach was chosen over installing new pumping capacity or looping the pipeline, both expensive capital-cost solutions.Use of DRAs reduced the pumping pressures required while increasing flow.The pipeline was designed to deliver 4.5 million tonnes/year (tpy) of batched product to the refinery at Mahmood Kot. It can now, however, safely transport a maximum of 4.5 million tpy of crude and 1.5 million tpy of diesel.Outlined here is the analysis used to verify that the pipeline could be safe...
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