Petrophysical insights contradict Archie's equation

Laboratory and industry-based evidence shows that recovered waters from hydrocarbon-filled formations may have higher resistivity levels than those found in nearby water-filled formations.If true, this would indicate that the Archie equation, used to evaluate hydrocarbon saturation, is invalid.In essence, some water samples recovered from clean hydrocarbon-filled sands by downhole formation and surface production tests have observed much lower water salinity values than formation waters or mud filtrates. Additionally, some production problems have been associated with water production with below normal salinity.1These observations contradict conventional belief that the salinities of form...

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