Formation mineral content key to successful sandstone acidizing

To improve the success of sandstone-acidizing, operators must know the mineral content of producing formations. Otherwise, they may encounter problems with clay swelling, fines migration, gel formation, and precipitation.Both laboratory research and field examples show the need to tailor treatments to formation minerals.Ion exchange, clay swellingIon exchange occurs between formation minerals (usually clays) and injected brines. Sodium ions are often attached to these clays, but these ions can become exchanged with ions of the injected fluid. Click here to enlarge imageWhen ion exchange occurs, the clays convert the injected fluids to salt water of the corresponding concentrations. For e...

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