Method yields download force to arrest upheaval buckling in offshore lines

A simple method for preliminary design of offshore pipelines against upheaval buckling has been developed. It uses an averaging approach for prediction of the required download in the absence of information on the imperfection length.The method is based on basic beam-column theory; design examples are used here to demonstrate the method.Upheaval bucklingWhen a pipeline is operated at a temperature and pressure higher than that at tie-in and greater than the ambient, the pipe will try to expand. If the line is not free to expand, an axial compressive force develops in the pipe that may cause considerable vertical, lateral, or combined movement of the pipe.When the line is buried in a trenc...

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