State Of The Art Of 4D Seismic Monitoring: The Technique, The Record, And The Future

John R. Fanchi, Theodore A. Pagano, Thomas L. Davis Colorado School of Mines Golden, Colo. Experience from several large projects has improved the oil and gas industry's understanding about what time-lapse seismic monitoring can and cannot do to aid in field development and production management. Time-lapse seismic reservoir monitoring is the comparison of 3D seismic surveys at two or more points in time. Commonly known as 4D seismic, time-lapse seismic reservoir monitoring has great potential for increasing our ability to image fluid movement between wells. The oil and gas industry has recognized for some time that the analysis of 4D data volumes can improve the q...

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