Russia plans to use the most advanced technology available to ensure that its huge arctic gas pipeline system crossing an arm of the Kara Sea from western Siberia's Yamal Peninsula to the mainland coast is ecologically secure. Safety measures not seen before in Russia are being taken to assure that the proposed eight 48 in. pipelines spanning the 70 km (43 1/2 mile) wide Baidaratskaya Bay pose the least threat of damage to the permafrost terrain at the northern and southern ends of the crossing. Onshore, before going beneath the water, each line will be enclosed in a tunnel with about 3 m (115 in.) ID and surrounded by a thick layer ...

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