Alexander P. Zakharov Scientific-Industrial Enterprise of New Technologies Moscow Evgeny A. Konovalov Aprelevka Division of the All-Union Research & Development Geological Oil Institute Moscow Environmentally safe mud additives made from water-soluble combinations of silicon, phosphorus, aluminum, and boron have replaced some of the conventional water-loss reducers and lubricating agents in certain drilling operations. Mud additives that use these bases - combined with coal-alkaline chemicals, lignites, and acryl-type polymers - have been used as effective substitutes for hydrocarbon components in mud systems. These a...

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