G. A. Gabrielyants Minister of Geology of the U.S.S.R. Moscow For many decades the U.S.S.R. fuel-energy complex developed dynamically. During 1960-89 production of organic fuels--including oil, gas, coal, peat, oil shales, and firewood--tripled to 2.273 billion metric tons on a fuel-equivalent basis (see Table 1 and footnote). General exploration for oil, gas, coal, and shales has ensured study of the geological structure of the Soviet Union and identified the major energy resource bases, which in turn have determined how the oil and gas industry developed and worked. Discovery of unique fields in the western Siberian, Pre-Caspian, and Amudarya pr...

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