Richard S. Heite Mapco Petroleum Inc. Memphis, Tenn. A.R. English Chevron Research & Technology Co. Richmond, Calif. G. Andrew Smith Intercat, Inc. Sea Girt, N.J. Bismuth-based nickel passivation has been effective in Mapco Petroleum Inc.'s fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) at its Memphis, Tenn., refinery for the past 2 years. Mapco switched to the bismuth passivator in 1988 after using antimony as a passivator since the early 1980s, Metals (nickel and vanadium) passivators help reduce the catalyst activity suppression that occurs from contamination of the catalyst with feed-borne metals. With the s...

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