Intermittent operations, PPD optimize low flow-rate waxy crude system

Xin LiuJinjun ZhangHongying LiBo YuChina University of PetroleumBeijingIntermittent operation in combination with pour-point depressants allows optimum long-term operation of low flow-rate, waxy crude pipelines.The China West Crude Pipeline (610, 813, 711-mm OD, 1,838 km), runs between Urumqi, capital of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and Lanzhou, capital of Gansu province, northwest China (Fig. 1). It includes 12 pumping stations and a terminal.1 Soil temperature at buried depth ranges between 1° C. and 25° C. at different locations and times of the year.The pipeline entered service in summer 2007 at about half its 422,810 b/d design capacity. Transported crude included im...

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