OGJ Focus: Thermodynamics help determine underlying black powder processes

Based on an article published in the Saudi Aramco Journal of Technology, Fall 2009.Thermodynamics can assist with understanding the underlying chemical processes of internal corrosion and black powder formation in dry gas pipelines. This is the case despite the presence of a wide range of corrosion products (iron oxides, iron carbonates, and elemental sulfur) sampled from the pipelines suggesting nonhomogeneous processes at play that are not thermodynamically controlled.Intermittent ingress of oxygen from process upsets and cyclical wet-dry conditions resulting from process upsets and seasonal temperature changes are the main cause of these corrosion products, complicating the task of cor...

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