REFINERY GASES—2: Oxygen assists in process intensification, hikes flexibility

Part 1 of this series of three articles dealt with the uses hydrogen and nitrogen found in oil refineries. Some of these uses have been around for a long time and are well known; others are newer, dictated by new and more stringent regulations or by rising energy prices (OGJ, Nov. 23, 2009, p. 50). This second article deals with the uses of oxygen in oil refineries. All these uses come together under "Process Intensification," which also includes achieving higher flexibility. This becomes increasingly important as the worldwide consumption of fuel is still rising while only few new refineries are being built. Therefore the load on existing refineries rises and spare capacities s...

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