Waxy crude shutdown method yields savings

A new method for determining the maximum shutdown time of a waxy crude oil pipeline is not only more accurate and flexible, but can also yield substantial savings in heating costs compared to the subjective methods employed before a pipeline enters service.Pipeline operators often heat waxy crude lines to ensure safe and economic transport.1 Shutdowns may occur regularly for operational reasons and occasionally for such emergencies as pipe ruptures.2 Shutdowns lower the temperature of the oil, increasing its viscosity and strengthening its thixotropic tendencies,3 the combination of which requires a large start-up pressure. Start-up pressure exceeding the capacity of the pipe could lead t...

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