Producing the third phase

Water, the third phase in petroleum production, represents a massive liquid volume that operators have to handle and dispose of cost-effectively and in an environmentally sound manner. Although data on water production often are unreliable or unavailable, one estimate places worldwide annual water production associated with oil and gas at 77 billion bbl.In US operations alone, water production amounts to 14-18 billion bbl/year.Various new technologies, as discussed in the special report starting on p. 41, help handle and determine the source of water downhole. But water production is a complex issue.One can gain some understanding of the difficulty associated with water production from a ...

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