Challenges facing refinersBob Williams' excellent overview "Refiners' future survival hinges on adapting to changing feedstocks, product specs" (OGJ, Aug. 11, 2003, p. 20) touched on several challenges facing refiners. On page 32 there is a quote, "The biggest challenges (in desulfurization) besides dealing with a more severe operating mode ... may be how to dispose of unwanted refinery streams." Treating the unwanted 640-700º F. boiling range hydrocarbons will largely determine refiners' ULSD investment costs. FCC LCO and Coker LCGO contain more than 75% of the difficult-to-remove sulfur and the majority of the nitrogen compounds that drive up ULSD treating costs. Furthe...

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