Real-time optimization for refining

While the number of APC applications has increased continually towards a mature application period (with 5,000 worldwide applications), real-time optimization (RTO) applications have continued to develop in their formative years with 100 or so worldwide large-scale refining applications.RTO systems are frequently layered on top of an APC system, producing economic benefits using highly detailed thermodynamic, kinetic, and process models, and nonlinear optimization.Whereas an APC system typically pushes material and energy balances to increase feed and preferred products, RTO systems can trade yield, recovery, and efficiency among disparate pieces of equipment.APC applications include pr...

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