Catalysts of change

A number of environmental regulations coming into force in the next few years will compel refiners to rethink their operations and future capital investments. Refiners will increasingly rely on new catalyst formulations and technologies to comply with these regulations (see related special report beginning on p. 48).In the US, refiners are concerned with:Gasoline sulfur, which will have to average 30 ppm by 2005, vs. a current level of around 350 ppm.Diesel sulfur levels, which have to be lowered to 15 ppm by 2006.A possible phase-out of methyl tertiary butyl ether and an ethanol mandate.Driveability index.Diesel cetane levels.Mobile-source air toxics.Outside the US (OUS), gasoline sulfur...

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