CSB's final report cites 'broken safety culture' at BP

Paula Dittrick
Senior Staff Writer

HOUSTON, Mar. 20 -- BP PLC had a "broken safety culture" at the time of the Mar. 23, 2005, fire and explosion at its 460,000 b/d Texas City, Tex., refinery that killed 15 people and injured 180 others, the US Chemical Safety Board (CSB) said at a news conference Mar. 20 outlining details of its final report.

The CSB board voted 5-0 late on Mar. 20 to approve the final report at a public meeting in Texas City. BP issued a statement saying it was in disagreement with parts of the report, but it did not elaborate.

Many safety issues that led to the accident were recurring safety problems previously identified in BP internal audits, reports, and investigations, CSB said. BP acquired the refinery when it merged with Amoco Corp. in 1999.

CSB found that "cost-cutting in the 1990s by Amoco and then BP left the Texas City refinery vulnerable to a catastrophe." Over a 30-year period spanning the refinery's ownership by Amoco and BP, 23 workers died there, not counting the 15 workers killed in March 2005, said the report.

"Among other things, cost considerations discouraged refinery officials from replacing the blowdown drum with a flare system, which the CSB previously determined would have prevented or greatly minimized the severity of the accident," CSB investigators said. The explosion involved a C5-C6 isomerization unit with "antiquated equipment," they said.

Hydrocarbons originated from liquid overflow from an F-20 blowdown drum, BP Products North America Inc. has said in its incident investigation report that was released on Dec. 9, 2005. The fire and explosion occurred on the isom unit and involved the raffinate splitter and blowdown drum (OGJ, Jan. 23, 2006, p. 51). Flammable liquid hydrocarbons vented directly into the atmosphere.

"A geyser-like release of highly flammable liquid and vapor" was emitted, and a diesel pickup truck idling nearby ignited the vapor, causing the explosion and fire that resulted in fatalities and injuries in and around work trailers placed "too close" to the isom unit, the CSB report said.

CSB investigator Mark Kasniak developed a vapor and blast model. He calculates 7,600 gal of flammable liquid hydrocarbons was released in less than 2 min. Carolyn W. Merritt, CSB chairwoman and chief executive officer, called the explosion avoidable, saying it was "the inevitable result of a series of actions" by BP executives and its corporate board.

"Among other things, they cut costs that affected maintenance and safety [and] they ignored the implications of previous incidents that were red warning flags," Merritt said. "There was a broken safety culture at BP. The company has, since the accident, taken steps to improve process safety and to change their safety culture."

CSB concluded the Texas City refinery accident stemmed from organizational and safety deficiencies at all levels of BP.

"The boards of directors of oil and chemical companies should examine every detail of their process safety programs to ensure that another terrible tragedy like the one at BP does not occur," Merritt said. She advocates "a new standard of care for corporate boards of directors and CEOs throughout the world."

Process safety programs deserve the same level of attention, investment, and scrutiny as companies now dedicate to maintaining their financial controls, she said. Fielding questions from reporters about industry's reports of improved safety at refineries, Merritt said BP measured its safety record by the number of injuries to individuals at plants. This involves personal safety like slips, falls, and vehicle accidents. Industry needs to better measure risk factors to facilities, she said.

CSB recommends the Occupational Safety and Health Administration increase its petrochemical inspections and enforce safety regulations at refineries and chemical plants.

OSHA inspections
OSHA conducted only one planned Process Safety Management (PSM) inspection at the Texas City refinery in 1998 even though the refinery experienced fatal accidents from 1985 to 2005, said CSB supervisory investigator Don Holmstrom.

"OSHA's national focus is on inspecting facilities with high injury rates. While that is important, it has resulted in reduced attention to preventing less-frequent but catastrophic process safety incidents such as the one at Texas City," Holmstrom said. "Available evidence indicates that OSHA has an insufficient number of qualified inspectors to enforce the PSM standard at oil and chemical facilities," he said.

The report calls on OSHA to identify plants at the greatest risk of a catastrophic accident and then to conduct comprehensive inspections at those plants. It also recommends that OSHA hire or train new, specialized inspectors and expand its national PSM training curriculum. CSB concluded that existing rules likely could have prevented the Texas City accident.

"But if a company is not following those rules, year-in and year-out, it is ultimately the responsibility of the federal government to enforce good safety practices before more lives are lost," Merritt said. "These facilities simply have too many potentially catastrophic hazards to be overlooked."

CSB is an independent federal agency that investigates industrial chemical accidents, including the root causes of the accident such as equipment failure as well as regulations. It does not issue citations or fines but makes safety recommendations to plants, industry organizations, labor groups, and regulatory agencies.

The report recommends BP appoint an additional board member having expertise in process safety, and it also calls for BP senior executives to establish an improved incident reporting program and to use new indicators to measure safety performance.

An independent panel commissioned by BP and led by former US Sec. of State James A. Baker III raised similar issues that the industry needs to address, Holmstrom and Merritt said.

The CSB team recommends that the American Petroleum Institute and the United Steelworkers International Union work together to develop standards to prevent employee fatigue in the oil and chemical industry. Last week, API officials said US refiners already are applying lessons learned from the Texas City refinery (OGJ Online, Mar. 16, 2007).

Investigators said a valve allowing liquid to drain into storage tanks was left closed for over 3 hr during the isom unit startup on Mar. 23, contrary to unit start-up procedures. CSB concluded that human factors, including fatigue, led to this error.

"By Mar. 23, operators had been working 12-hr shifts for 29 or more consecutive days," CSB investigators said, adding "There are no fatigue-prevention guidelines that are widely used and accepted in the oil and chemical sector." The transportation industry has such regulations.

Earlier incidents
The report said BP had failed to investigate previous abnormal isom unit start-ups, and that a Mar. 23 decision by a control board operator to keep the drain valve closed was influenced by ineffective communication and by false instrument readings.

The normal liquid level in the tower was 6½ ft, but the level on Mar. 23 reached 158 ft shortly before the accident. This was unknown to operators. The CSB determined the level transmitter was miscalibrated, using a setting from outdated data sheets that likely had not been updated since 1975. CSB citied "lack of effective preventive maintenance, lack of change reviews and pre-startup reviews, and incomplete hazard analyses."

The refinery only investigated three of eight known previous isom blowdown release incidents where vapor was released from the same blowdown drum involved in the Mar. 23 accident. In 2004 an internal BP audit graded the refinery's analysis of incident information as "poor," CSB said.

CSB also determined that both the blowdown drum and relief-valve disposal piping were undersized. BP was required by federal regulations to conduct a study of the tower's pressure relief system but this study was 13 years overdue by 2005.

The refinery had longstanding process safety deficiencies, Merritt said, but she believes BP and industry in general are learning from this. She said she is confident that chemical and oil industry workplaces will be safer in the future as a result of the CSB recommendations.

BP response
BP said it voluntarily provided CSB with over 6 million pages of documents and made over 300 witnesses available for CSB interviews, including some of its most senior executives.

"Notwithstanding the company's strong disagreement with some of the content of the CSB report, particularly many of the findings and conclusions, BP will give full and careful consideration to CSB's recommendations, in conjunction with the many activities already under way to improve process safety management," the company said in a statement.

BP described itself as "willing and able to achieve the goal of becoming an industry leader in process safety management."

In the 2 years since the accident, BP said it has worked to address causes of the explosion, to reduce risk, and improve process safety management and performance at its five US refineries.

"This effort continues. BP is committed to preventing such a tragedy from occurring again," the company said.
Contact Paula Dittrick at paulad@ogjonline.com

Related Articles

BLM finalizes oil shale regulations; leasing unlikely for 5-10 years

11/28/2008 The US Bureau of Land Management published final regulations on Nov. 17 to establish a commercial oil shale development program on public lands in ...

'Alaska's methane hydrates can be developed now'

11/28/2008 US Sen. Lisa Murkowski (R-Alas.), on Nov. 12 in response to a US Geological Survey report indicating that up to an additional 157.8 trillion cubic ...

USGS estimates 2.4 Tcf of gas lies beneath eastern Oregon, Washington

10/31/2008 An estimated 2.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and 9.8 million bbl of natural gas liquids lie beneath eastern Oregon and Washington, the US Ge...

DOE successfully generates electricity from producing well's hot water

10/24/2008 Electricity has been generated successfully from a producing oil well's geothermal hot water for the first time, the US Department of Energy's Foss...

USGS estimates Alaskan North Slope contains 85.4 Tcf of producible gas hydrates

10/24/2008 There are approximately 85.4 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered, technically recoverable natural gas resources within gas hydrates on Alaska's Nor...

Senate rejects economic stimulus bill with oil shale moratorium

10/03/2008 The US Senate defeated an economic stimulus bill with a provision to extend a moratorium on federal oil shale leasing by 52 to 42 votes on Sept. 26...

Reactions are mixed as BLM issues programmatic EIS for oil shale

09/12/2008 The US Bureau of Land Management issued a final programmatic environmental impact statement on Sept. 4 to guide the use of public land containing o...

Senate, House members pledge action following independent oil speculation study

09/12/2008 An independent report showing that record amounts of speculative investment drove oil prices to record peaks in 2008 confirms that stronger market ...

2008 Republican platform's energy, environment planks contain no surprises

09/05/2008 Republicans adopted a 2008 national campaign platform on Sept. 1 which included a call to "aggressively increase our nation's energy supply in an e...
White Papers

Transforming the Oil and Gas Industry with EPPM

With budgets in the billions, timelines spanning years, and life cycles extending over decades, oil an...
Sponsored by

Asset Decommissioning in Oil & Gas: Transforming Business

Asset intensive organizations like Oil and Gas have their own industry specific challenges when it com...
Sponsored by

Squeezing the Green: How to Cut Petroleum Downstream Costs and Optimize Processing Efficiencies with Enterprise Project Portfolio Management Solutions

As the downstream petroleum industry grapples with change in every sector and at every level, includin...
Sponsored by

7 Steps to Improve Oil & Gas Asset Decommissioning

Global competition and volatile markets are creating a challenging business climate for project based ...
Sponsored by

The impact of aging infrastructure in process manufacturing industries

Process manufacturing companies in the oil and gas, utilities, chemicals and natural resource industri...
Sponsored by

What is System Level Thermo-Fluid Analysis?

This paper will explain some of the fundamentals of System Level Thermo-Fluid Analysis and demonstrate...

Accurate Thermo-Fluid Simulation in Real Time Environments

The crux of any task undertaken in System Level Thermo-Fluid Analysis is striking a balance between ti...

6 ways for Energy, Chemical and Oil and Gas Companies to Avert the Impending Workforce Crisis

As many as half of the skilled workers in energy, chemical and oil & gas industries are quickly he...
Sponsored by
Available Webcasts

On Demand

Global LNG: Adjusting to New Realities

Fri, Mar 20, 2015

Oil & Gas Journal’s March 20, 2015, webcast will look at how global LNG trade will be affected over the next 12-24 months by falling crude oil prices and changing patterns and pressures of demand. Will US LNG production play a role in balancing markets? Or will it add to a growing global oversupply of LNG for markets remote from easier natural gas supply? Will new buyers with marginal credit, smaller requirements, or great need for flexibility begin to look attractive to suppliers? How will high-cost, mega-projects in Australia respond to new construction cost trends?

register:WEBCAST


US Midstream at a Crossroads

Fri, Mar 6, 2015

Oil & Gas Journal’s Mar. 6, 2015, webcast will focus on US midstream companies at an inflection point in their development in response to more than 6 years shale oil and gas production growth. Major infrastructure—gas plants, gathering systems, and takeaway pipelines—have been built. Major fractionation hubs have expanded. Given the radically changed pricing environment since mid-2014, where do processors go from here? What is the fate of large projects caught in mid-development? How to producers and processors cooperate to ensure a sustainable and profitable future? This event will serve to set the discussion table for the annual GPA Convention in San Antonio, Apr. 13-16, 2015.

This event is sponsored by Leidos Engineering.

register:WEBCAST


The Future of US Refining

Fri, Feb 6, 2015

Oil & Gas Journal’s Feb. 6, 2015, webcast will focus on the future of US refining as various forces this year conspire to pull the industry in different directions. Lower oil prices generally reduce feedstock costs, but they have also lowered refiners’ returns, as 2015 begins with refined products priced at lows not seen in years. If lower per-barrel crude prices dampen production of lighter crudes among shale plays, what will happen to refiners’ plans to export more barrels of lighter crudes? And as always, refiners will be affected by government regulations, particularly those that suppress demand, increase costs, or limit access to markets or supply.

register:WEBCAST


Oil & Gas Journal’s Forecast & Review/Worldwide Pipeline Construction 2015

Fri, Jan 30, 2015

The  Forecast & Review/Worldwide Pipeline Construction 2015 Webcast will address Oil & Gas Journal’s outlooks for the oil market and pipeline construction in a year of turbulence. Based on two annual special reports, the webcast will be presented by OGJ Editor Bob Tippee and OGJ Managing Editor-Technology Chris Smith.
The Forecast & Review portion of the webcast will identify forces underlying the collapse in crude oil prices and assess prospects for changes essential to recovery—all in the context of geopolitical pressures buffeting the market.

register:WEBCAST


Emerson Micro Motion Videos

Careers at TOTAL

Careers at TOTAL - Videos

More than 600 job openings are now online, watch videos and learn more!

 

Click Here to Watch

Other Oil & Gas Industry Jobs

Search More Job Listings >>
Stay Connected